Corrections of Radiosonde-Based Precipitable Water Using Ground-Based GPS and Applications on Historical Radiosonde Data Over China
作者: Zhang, WX (Zhang, Weixing); Lou, YD (Lou, Yidong); Cao, YC (Cao, Yunchang); Liang, H (Liang, Hong); Shi, C (Shi, Chuang); Huang, JF (Huang, Jinfang); Liu, WX (Liu, Wenxuan); Zhang, Y (Zhang, Yong); Fan, BB (Fan, Binbin)
来源出版物: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 卷: 124 期: 6 页: 3208-3222 DOI: 10.1029/2018JD029662 出版年: MAR 27 2019
摘要: The usage of radiosonde humidity data in climate studies and atmospheric reanalysis has been greatly hampered by the inhomogeneity issue mainly caused by radiosonde sensor changes. In this work, high-quality precipitable water (PW) products derived from a national Global Positioning System (GPS) network in China covering the period from 1999 to 2015 were used to quantify errors in radiosonde-derived PW products for different radiosonde types. Correlations between PW biases and factors including the station location, mean PW, weighted mean temperature (T-m), and solar elevation angle were carefully analyzed. Biases in PW products derived from the mechanical radiosondes (GZZ2, used at most stations before 2001) show strong correlations with the station elevation and T-m, and a PW correction model was then developed. For GTS1 and GTS1-1 (widely used in current operational system), due to the unobvious correlations between PW biases and these factors, corrections were estimated as mean values of PW biases at all collocated stations. For GTS1-2, GTS2(U)-1, and TD2-A (used at a few stations), subject to insufficient GPS-radiosonde collocated stations, they are left uncorrected. The corrected radiosonde-derived PW products (referred as Corr) were compared with the uncorrected products (referred as Raw) as well as PW products derived from the radiosonde data homogenized using the method proposed by Dai et al. (2011; referred as Dai, ). Corr products show better agreements with GPS-derived PW than Raw and Dai, and artificial significant decreasing PW trends in the recent two decades in Raw products were greatly reduced after applying the proposed corrections.