Very high-rate GPS for measuring dynamic seismic displacements without aliasing: performance evaluation of the variometric approach
作者: Shu, YM (Shu, Yuanming); Fang, RX (Fang, Rongxin); Li, M (Li, Min); Shi, C (Shi, Chuang); Li, M (Li, Meng); Liu, JN (Liu, Jingnan)
来源出版物: GPS SOLUTIONS 卷: 22 期: 4 文献号: UNSP 121 DOI: 10.1007/s10291-018-0785-z 出版年: OCT 2018
摘要: Very high-rate global positioning system (GPS) data has the capacity to quickly resolve seismically related ground displacements, thereby providing great potential for rapidly determining the magnitude and the nature of an earthquake's rupture process and for providing timely warnings for earthquakes and tsunamis. The GPS variometric approach can measure ground displacements with comparable precision to relative positioning and precise point positioning (PPP) within a short period of time. The variometric approach is based on single-differencing over time of carrier phase observations using only the broadcast ephemeris and a single receiver to estimate velocities, which are then integrated to derive displacements. We evaluate the performance of the variometric approach to measure displacements using 50Hz GPS data, which were recorded during the 2013 M-W 6.6 Lushan earthquake and the 2011 M-W 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The comparison between 50 and 1Hz seismic displacements demonstrates that 1Hz solutions often fail to faithfully manifest the seismic waves containing high-frequency seismic signals due to aliasing, which is common for near-field stations of a moderate-magnitude earthquake. Results indicate that 10-50Hz sampling GPS sites deployed close to the source or the ruptured fault are needed for measuring dynamic seismic displacements of moderate-magnitude events. Comparisons with post-processed PPP results reveal that the variometric approach can determine seismic displacements with accuracies of 0.3-4.1, 0.5-2.3 and 0.8-6.8cm in the east, north and up components, respectively. Moreover, the power spectral density analysis demonstrates that high-frequency noises of seismic displacements, derived using the variometric approach, are smaller than those of PPP-derived displacements in these three components.